Since science is focused on obtaining new knowledge, the author of a scientific work needs to familiarize himself with the publications of other scientists and highlight the results of his research from an array of already known information.

To do this, the researchers refer to the used publications of other scientists and cite some fragments.

Citation Forms:

  • Exact citation. With this method of quoting, punctuation marks should be placed in the same way as in sentences with direct speech.
  • Bibliography formation

Recommendations for the design of bibliographic lists:

1. The list must have end-to-end ordinal numbering of the documents included in it.

2. Information about the sources is numbered in Arabic numerals and printed from the indention.

3. The most common way of grouping sources is the systematic way in which the descriptions of books and articles are located in the general alphabet of the names of the authors and the titles of books and articles.

4. At the beginning of the list, it is recommended to have official and regulatory documents (Federal laws, Decrees of the President, decrees, regulations, orders, etc.). Within the group of similar documents, descriptions can be arranged either alphabetically or by chronology.

5. At the end of the list, there are descriptions of sources in foreign languages, arranged in the Latin alphabet.

6. Descriptions of the works of authors are usually located in the alphabet of their initials.

7. The works of one author and his works with co-authors are included in the list in the alphabet of the first words of the titles, and the names of the co-authors are not taken into account.

8. Information about regulatory documents and articles from periodicals is provided with the obligatory indication of the source of publication.

9. If you used an electronic document from the Internet in your work, indicate the address of the server or database in the publication source.

According to the general provisions of the Bibliography Reference, there are bibliographic references: inline, placed in the text of the document; interlinear, rendered from the text down the page of the document.


The writing is undoubtedly a creative work that reflects the thinking and written speech of its author. In order to unify the compositions, which helps to evaluate them more objectively, the similar rules have been developed. In this article, we will consider the requirements for the volume of works in accordance with these rules.

Each essay should have the following structure:

  • Title page.
  • Plan.
  • The text of the essay.
  • List of sources used.

The text of the essay consists of the following elements:

Introduction – the relevance of the topic is substantiated, the problem is posed, and the importance of studying this problem is argued, the purpose of writing the essay is determined. The size of the introduction of 1-2 pages.

The central part consists of at least three points. You can make one item deployed. A clause may have at least two sub-clauses. In paragraphs of the central part, the theme of the essay is revealed, thoughts, statements, and arguments are given, which are given in their proof. The citation and thoughts of other authors are welcome in support of the hypothesis presented in the essay. The main part is the largest in the structure of the essay. Practice shows that in most universities, it takes 8-10 pages.

The conclusion contains the conclusions reached by the student in the process of achieving the goal set in the introduction. The volume of the conclusion is 1 page.

The list of sources used includes references used in alphabetical order by the names of the authors and Internet resources with their links. The information on the sources used is given in accordance with the sequence, scope, and rules of bibliographic description established. The volume of references is 1 page.

Consider the basic requirements for registration, which directly affect the amount of your work:

  • Use A4 sheets.
  • Set the margins of the following size: upper and lower – 20 mm, left – 30 mm, right – 10 mm.
  • Use only TimesNewRoman font, size 14, one, and a half space.
  • Each structural should begin on a new sheet.


Before passing the international exam in English, you can check what score we can qualify for. One of the most challenging sections of the exam is writing an essay. I propose to find out which paid essay verification services exist, and which one will suit you best.


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Writing a critical essay is an excellent way to share and discuss the literature you have read. A critical essay can analyze one piece of literature (characters, themes, conspiracy items) or compare and contrast multiple pieces of literature from the same author.

Write an introduction that includes a strong thesis statement. Your introductory paragraph should introduce a piece of literature that you will discuss for the rest of the essay. Suppose your audience has not read the work. Give a brief overview of the work, including the main characters and the conflict. Provide an argument or topic to which you will refer. Your thesis statement should state your position on the topic.

A good thesis can be supported by evidence from the text. The weak thesis is a matter of taste, which can not be proved with examples from the text. An example of a good thesis, “Lorraine Hansberry’s ‘Raisin in the Sun’ game demonstrates how Walter’s pursuit of money endangers his family and ultimately leads to his downfall.” A weak thesis would be, “‘Raisin in the sun’ is a good game.”

Maintain your position. The body of your critical essay should be filled with evidence from a text that supports your thesis statement. Include passages from the text that prove your argument. Be sure to use quotations and cite the page number where evidence is found. The body of your essay should be at least three paragraphs and use at least three examples from the text. For “Raisins in the Sun,” you might discuss how Walter’s decision to give Willy money to invest instead of putting her in a bank was fed by greed and his misconception that he knew what was best for his family.

Complete your essay. Your opinion should summarize your position and reiterate your thesis. Repeat the essential points and tie your main ideas. Leave the reader with something to reflect on. A reasonable conclusion for an essay on “The Raisin in the Sun” might be, “Although Walter’s actions nearly destroyed his family, he was able to find forgiveness and ransom, and he came to understand the true meaning of wealth.”


Writing tasks are compulsory in any educational institution program. They are aimed at developing the linguistic and creative abilities of students and form the ability to analyze and express their knowledge in their own words.

Not every student from birth has a talent for the letter. Some people mistakenly believe that writing cannot be improved, and then they are surprised to notice that there are many ways, tips, and tricks on how to write an essay. To some extent, they can be reduced to some formula.

Types of abstracts

First, you need to decide what kind of work a teacher needs. The content of the composition is subdivided into the following subspecies:


Often, it is used in texts intended for verbal portraits, characters, states of characters or reality. The description uses abundantly high-quality adjectives and verbs in the present time, as well as many art techniques such as metaphor, epithet, and comparison. The form of essay writing is preferably free and has no rigid structural basis.


In fact, this is a handwritten story that contains such elements as plot, action, and result. The author must tell about events in the correct order, which can help the use of verbs and adjectives in the present time.


The most favorite kind of work for teachers. As a rule, the author is given some argument or question, which should be developed in work, reinforcing his own point of view conclusions and concrete evidence. The traditional composition of reasoning includes the thesis (main idea of ​​the essay), the central part (list of arguments) and the conclusion in which the fairness/injustice or correctness/irregularity of the given topic should be reflected.

Often, all three types of works may one way, or another be present in one work. For example, if this topic involves a biography of a historian, including a subjective assessment of his personality and an indication of a particular conclusion of the author about the person specified. Then it makes sense to talk about some kind of universal working structure.

As you can see, it is not so hard to finish a college application essay, you just need to be careful and work hard.